29 January 2022
The Red Sea has some of the best diving in the world. With over 1000 species of fish and 150 species of coral, it is rich in life. As the Red Sea has few storms, her corals are intricate and beautiful. They are also resistant to bleaching. Turtles are common, as are sharks if you take a southern liveaboard.
Diving in the Red Sea. Photo credit: Tim Nicholson
The average water temperature ranges from a low of 20oC in February to 31 oC in September in the far south. The winds are often weakest during full moon. Low season is December to February because of the cooler water, and June to August because of the heat, which makes for quieter dive sites. In the winter months you are also more likely to see Oceanic White Tip sharks in Egypt and hammerhead sharks in Sudan. Likewise for the Djibouti whale sharks when the best time to go is from November to January. Warmer water in summer lures the hammerhead sharks further north into Egypt. September to November is the time to see manta rays in Sudan, and thresher sharks in both Sudan and Egypt.
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Currents in the Red Sea are normally, like the wind, from north to south. But there are many exceptions to this.
The Red Sea is part of the Great Rift Valley: a trough running from Israel to south of the equator. This immense crack in the Earth's surface makes for an extremely deep sea, reaching nearly 3000 m. It also explains small islands like the Brothers dive site. Steep-sided and far from land, they were probably thrown up by volcanic actions as the rift opened.
The Red Sea borders many countries - learn more about diving in:
Red Sea Diving Map
Egypt is a popular diving area with good reason: it has some beautiful dives.
You will need to buy a $25 tourist visa when you arrive. If you have no dollars you can pay 25 Euros or 25 pounds. The Egyptian parliament though want to raise the entry fee to $60.
Diving in the Red Sea. Photo credit: Tim Nicholson
The Egyptian authorities have advised that all arrivals into Egypt will be subject to health measures. You will need to complete a monitoring card with personal details, and will need to provide confirmation of valid health insurance policy to airport authorities. Passengers holding a COVID-19 vaccination certificate are exempt from presenting a negative PCR test on arrival. Everyone else will be required to present a negative PCR (polymerise chain reaction) test certificate on arrival. This must have been conducted no more than 72 hours prior to flight departure. Although passengers arriving from London Heathrow are permitted to have their PCR test conducted no more than 96 hours prior to flight departure. Children under the age of 6 are exempt. You should check with your airline to confirm time frames for undertaking PCR tests and what proof of testing needs to be presented before you travel.
If you arrive at an Egyptian Red Sea airport without evidence of a negative PCR test you can undergo testing on arrival for USD30. After testing you will be required to self-isolate at your hotel until you receive your test result. The Egyptian authorities will be in touch and will advise whether you need to continue self-isolating. Test results are expected to become available within 12-24 hours.
If your test result is positive, the Egyptian authorities are likely to ask you to self-isolate for up to 14 days in a separate room allocated for quarantine within your hotel.
Egypt has a culture of tipping. Tip everybody unless you receive bad service. If you have no Egyptian pounds you can tip in Euros, dollars or pounds. As a rough guide, per person, tip as follows.
Driver taking you to the hotel: 10 LE (Egyptian pounds)
Dive guides/boat staff: 10% of dive costs
Waiters: 5 LE per meal
Housekeeping: 5 LE per night
Luggage porter in hotel: 5 LE per bag
Taxi: funnily enough taxi drivers aren't generally tipped, but at least 5 LE if they have been helpful
Restaurants outside your hotel - service charge is often added but this doesn't go to the staff: tip the waiters as well.
When tipping do so discretely, fold in the palm of the hand and pass across for example.
Don't be surprised if an Egyptian asks you to convert a number of coins to a bank note. The banks will only exchange notes and so people need a friendly tourist to change their foreign tips for them.
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Diving Areas of Egypt
The fledgling diving tourist industry in Saudi Arabia has been curtailed by the impossibility of getting a tourist visa. Diving is still available for foreign workers and Saudi nationals.
PADI and BSAC qualification cards are no longer recognised in Saudi Arabia: you need a Saudi-issued, Arabic language dive permit to dive
Diver in Saudi Arabia. Photo credit: Captain Victor Organ.
The main diving areas are around Jeddah and Yanbu. There are also some good reefs south of Jeddah. Some of the shore dives in Jeddah have been heavily spear fished (even though spear fishing is banned) and there are also problems with coastal developments polluting the water in some areas. However there are many more fantastic dives, full of life, and numerous wrecks.
The best diving is via liveaboard. Whale sharks visit Farasan Banks from March to June. You need to bring along a passport, Igama or Saudi ID and your Saudi Dive Permit.
The top hotels in Jeddah have contacts with the dive shops and can arrange instruction for beginners and recreational dives for qualified divers. Many offer private beaches from which to shore dive.
Djibouti is at the foot of the Red Sea. It is famous for whale sharks. You dive Djibouti from a liveaboard.
Djibouti sits on the junction between the African and the Arabian tectonic plates and you can dive in this crack at Goubbet at La Faille
Djibouti Liveaboard - Book now & pay later.
Jordan is at the north end of the Red Sea. It has a Red Sea coastline of just 15 miles. The coral is in good condition and you will often see turtles and napoleon wrasse. It's not the place to go to see sharks though. Most of the dives can be done as shore dives.
Sudan's most famous dive site is the wreck of the Umbria. This huge shipwreck is a spooky castle of a dive, covered by corals and loaded with 36000 aircraft bombs, cars and wine bottles. Manta rays, whale sharks and, at night, tiger sharks visit. You'll probably be alone on the wreck due to the small numbers of divers visiting the country.
Another great Sudan dive site is Sha'ab Rumi South with its awe-inspiring hammerhead sharks.
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Israel's Red Sea diving is around Eilat. Highlights include Moses Rock and the wreck of the Satil. The diving is shore diving.
Eritrea is very little dived. One of its best dive areas is the Dahlak Islands. "Outstanding visibility, crowded with fish and bold coral formations, and NO PEOPLE!"
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