SCUBA News 278
(ISSN 1476-8011)

SCUBA News (ISSN 1476-8011)
Issue 278 - September 2023

What's New at SCUBA Travel?

Diver Training in Greece

Crossing over between dive agencies

Thinking of changing from PADI to SSI, or NAUI to CMAS? We answer your questions and compare qualifications from 38 different Scuba training organisations.

Blue Hole, Belize

Best Diving in Belize?

The Blue Hole is the most famous Belize dive site - but there are others even better.

Mola Mola in Bali by Boris Schnitman

Welcome back AquaMarine Diving to the SCUBA Travel Community

Dedicated to ensuring you experience Bali's best diving. Quote 'ScubaTravelUK2023' to get 10% off published price, free rental gear and an AquaMarine Goodie-Bundle.

Egypt Divers

Egypt Divers
Making your diving experience unforgettable with quality and service as priorities.

10 Last Minute & Early Bird Liveaboard Deals - Save up to $2000!

We bring you news of the latest dive boat deals, specially selected for us by, the liveaboard specialists. Including 5, 6, 7, 10 and 14 night trips.

  1. Seadoors, Philippines, SAVE 15%, Price from USD 1798 per trip per person 18-24 November
  2. Carpe Diem, Maldives, SAVE 30%, 21-28 October. Price from USD 1,736.
    SAVE 30% on Maldives trip
  3. Cocos Island Aggressor, Cocos Island Adventure, 02 - 12 Dec 2023 and 10 - 20 Jan 2024 (10 nights), SAVE 25%, Price from USD 6,599 4,949 per trip per person
  4. Jelajahi Laut, Indonesia, Maluku and West Papua, 28 Oct - 11 Nov 2023 (14 nights), SAVE UP TO 20%, Price from EUR 4,143 per trip per person
  5. Turks & Caicos Explorer II, , Provo, West Caicos, French Cay, 8 - 25 Nov 2023 (7 nights), SAVE $1200, Price from USD 3,195 1,995 per trip per person. Valid for new reservations only, booked, and deposited between August 10 and September 15, 2023. Cannot be combined with other discounts or credits.
    SAVE $1200 on Turks and Caicos trip
  6. Humboldt Explorer, Central Archipelago, Darwin And Wolf Islands, 11 - 18 Dec 2023 (7 nights), SAVE $2000, Price from USD 6,195 4,195 per trip per person * Valid for new reservations booked and deposited before September 15, 2023.
  7. Palau Aggressor II, The Best of Palau, The Best of Palau, 09 - 16 June 2024 (7 nights), SAVE 25%, Price from USD 3,535 2,651 per trip per person
  8. Nautilus Under the Sea, Baja California 8-13 October 2023 - 5 nights in the Sea of Cortez, SAVE USD 400. Ex-research vessel refurbished for small groups of divers. USD 1595 per person.
  9. Sea Pearl, Seychelles Book before 31st January for 20% off 2024 trips.
  10. Ghani, St Johns, Red Sea 23 - 30 December 2023 (7 nights), SAVE 29%, Price from just £ 729 per person for this fabulous trip to some of the best diving in Egypt.
    Egypt far south diving just £729

Creature of the month is the Orange Clubbed Nudibranch, Limacia clavigera

You can easily recognise this lovely little nudibranch by the orangy-yellow "clubs" around its body, curving inwards over its back.

Orange clubbed sea slug, also known as the Yellow-clubbed nudibranch. Taken in the Isle of Man. Photo credit: Tim Nicholson, from his excellent book Nudibranchs and Sea-slugs.

They are normally up to 20 mm long, but Norweigen scientists have reported seeing some as large as 40 mm.

This nudibranch feeds on encrusting bryozoans like Electra pilosa and Membranipora membranace. These tiny boxes of creatures live in a colonies on kelp and other seaweed.

Limacia clavigera feeding on Membranipora membranace in Sweden. Photo credit: Joroland

The three feathery appendages at the back are its gills.

The nudibranch's rhinophores, which it uses to smell or taste, are yellow tipped and lamellate or folded. These ridges increase their surface area and expands their chemoreception capabilities.

Here you can clearly see the laminate rhinophores projecting from the head of the nudibranch. Photo credit: Madelein Wolfaardt/DepositPhotos.

Like all nudibranchs, Limacia clavigera is hermaphrodite - both male and female at the same time.

Orange clubbed nudibranch with its swirls of eggs. Photo credit: Peter Southwood CC by 3.0.

Until recently Limacia clavigera was thought to be widely distributed, from the Atlantic coast of Europe, including the British Isles, to the Mediterranean, Azores and Canary Islands. It had also been reported in southern Africa. However researchers now believe that these sea slugs living so far apart may actually all look very similar but are six different species. Limacia clavigera is the North Eastern Atlantic species. The others have been classified as the smaller L. inesae, a new species living from the Med to the Canaries, and four other Limacia species in southern Africa.

Whichever species you see, it is always a delight.

Read More

Nudibranchs and Sea-slugs of the Isle of Man. Tim Nicholson.

Jessica A. Toms et al, February 2021 Marine Biodiversity 51(1) Disentangling species of the genus Limacia O.F. Muller, 1781, from southern Africa and Europe using integrative taxonomical methods, with the description of four new species. Mar. Biodivers. 51, 1 (2021).

Evertsen, J. and Bakken, T. 2002. Heterobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda) from northern Norway, with notes on ecology and distribution. Fauna norv. 22: 15-22

Diving news from around the World

Diving with the Avelo system

New Scuba System increases bottom time
New Avelo scuba set promises to: Increase bottom time, give effortless neutral buoyancy, improve air consumption and reduce weight and bulkiness. Sounds great - anyone tried it?

Hydropower dams cause problems

Revealed: Why the UN is not climate neutral
The UN claims to be almost entirely climate neutral, yet that claim is based on buying millions of carbon offset credits that experts say do little to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.


Big teeth, bigger data
Researchers are testing how well shark sanctuaries work, using public fishing data. Unlike some other marine protected areas that ban commercial fishing entirely, shark sanctuaries still allow some fishing. The stress on the sharks of being caught and released results in unintended shark deaths.

Cartoon of octopus punching fish

The Octopus Boxing Guide
Why did the octopus punch the fish? The answer, sometimes, is "out of spite"..

Coast lit up with artificial light

Light pollution threatens coastal marine systems
Offshore effects are still largely unknown

Drawing of illegal fishing

NOAA Identifies Seven Nations for Illegal Fishing Activities
The 2023 report identifies Angola, Grenada, Mexico, China, Taiwan, The Gambia, and Vanuatu as nations and entities participating in illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. Two were also identified for issues related to shark catch.

Shoal of sardine

Hypocrisy is threatening the future of the world's oceans
A few powerful nations are undermining progress towards global ocean sustainability. French and Spanish ships harvest up to one-third of tuna in the Indian Ocean with unsustainable fishing methods. Conversely, Chile has designated 41% of her waters for protection

Hammerhead sharks

Mystery as Female Hammerhead Sharks Found Gathering Under Full Moon
Strangely, no males seem to be invited to these gatherings, new research in the journal Frontiers in Marine Science reveals.

The sea

Ocean Film Festival anniversary tour arrives this autumn
Plunge into a night of ocean adventure! The Ocean Film Festival World Tour is bringing a new collection of captivating ocean-themed films to venues around the UK this autumn.

Diver and whale shark

Ready for a Trip? 4 Travel Blogs to Check Out in 2023
With the aid of travel blogs, finding new places to visit and organizing great vacations has never been simpler. (We love this because we're in it!)

Seal under ice by Becky Kagan Schott

Stunning Underwater Photography Collection
Underwater photography captures unique marine life and breathtaking environments, offering a mesmerising perspective that unveils the underwater world's hidden beauty

SCUBA News is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. This means we are happy for you to reuse our material for both commercial and non-commercial use as long as you: credit the name of the author, link back to the SCUBA Travel website and say if you have made any changes. Some of the photos though, might be copyright the photographer. If in doubt please get in touch.

Photo credits: Alan De Witt, Rudmer Zwerver, Howard Chew/DepositPhotos, Denis Riek, The Global Ocean Surface Ecosystem Alliance (GO-SEA) Field Guide (CC-BY 4.0), Tim Nicholson, Jill Studholme

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